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Popular Content

Showing content with the highest reputation since 07/07/2020 in all areas

  1. 7 points
    OK Folks, here's the video of the thermal imager footage we got last Sunday, and follow up visit the next day. Some producer contacted us, too. Not sure if I am interested or not. I wanted to get the video up first with a copyright on it before we even thought about anything else and then talk it over with @Madison5716. I am certainly not looking for notoriety, nor money really. Then again, $1500 split two ways would put a tiny little microscopic dent in my divorce attorney's bills. Seriously though, I wish every entrant the best. After all, it's all about learning about these majestic creatures, and for me, having a little honest fun and bad humor along the way.
  2. 7 points
  3. 5 points
    Yesterday, I went on a hiking adventure rather than a sasquatching one. I hiked with a buddy and we went up and over three mountains on a peninsula. The interior forest was a bit hazy as we started up the first one. Then, as you proceed from the first mountain to the second one to the third, you walk some of the way along a ridgeline, where you are treated to a view of both sides. The area is well known for its population of timber rattlers and if bitten there is no fast or easy way back to your car. That doesn't bode well. I've been hiking and backpacking many years and this hike was the most difficult one I've ever done. That includes Yosemite, Lake Tahoe, Desolation Valley, and the Grand Canyon. Steep climbs, then sliding down nearly-vertical terrain on your backside as you proceed down the mountain. The descents, with their rock ledges and narrow pathways, were more rigorous than the ascents. One missed step, which becomes easier when you begin to get tired, and you're tumbling down nearly vertical cliffs in some areas. All-in-all it was a great day hiking and the continuous views along the way inspired us to continue forward. Edited: To add the last picture. At the summit of the first mountain there was a deer. Didn't expect that. The reason I am including it is to show why "blobsquatches" are prevalent in pictures today. I had to hurry to get a picture of the deer as it began to move away. The camera focused on the vegetation rather than the deer.
  4. 5 points
    Since the audio was recorded with a digital recorder, I did my best to sync it up to the FLIR. It may be off by a few seconds, but it was taken at the same time. I did what I could to bleep out profanity, too. Turns out @Madison5716's mouth was cleaner than mine.
  5. 4 points
    I would estimate 75 yards distance. The green branch I hung from the tree in the location they were in was placed on a branch, the highest point I could easily enough reach, at 87 inches, which is 7' 3" off the ground. The ground was much lower that I suspected, in a bit of a natural dip. From the vehicle, the branch only appeared to be a foot or two off the ground due to the dip. I still want to cross reference images on the computer, but heightwise, I guesstimate at least 9' tall. probably closer to 10, but it's just a rough estimate. I am so sorry that it is taking a while to post video...I want to edit the video (not change it) by adding a copyright on it, and putting the other pieces of the video together. But it takes time, which is a luxury I don't have a lot of right now at this point in my life. I will do what I can, and it will be posted here for sure when I get it together. And I promise to keep the integrity of the original FLIR recording without enhancements outside of copyright and audio. The night vision footage is practically useless from what I can tell. You cannot see anything of value from what I have seen so far, but I have not given it a fine toothed comb yet. I think we had an audio recorder running, too, and I would like to add that track to the video if I can synch it up, and then bleep out Madison's salty words (and probably mine, as well!) I can't speak for her, but I guarantee you that my adrenaline was pumping as soon as I saw the little white blip actually stand up and walk on two legs. There were two of them. You can see them both when the white heat signatures split. One on one side of a tree, one on another. Then one jumps fluidly and quickly from one side of the tree to the next where the other one was standing watching us. And then they just calmly walked off into the forest. I feel very blessed to have been given a glimpse of these magnificent creatures. And now I am officially a "knower". Stay tuned.
  6. 4 points
    Date & Time - Sunday, July 5, 2020 from 730pm until 1 we pm Location - Oregon Cascades Weather - Beautiful 60 degrees, clear, no wind, full moon What Happened - NorthWind and I took his FLIR to a mountain top to use ut. We parked and walked down 2 logging roads, but got nothing. I suggested a spot on the way down the mountain, so we stopped there to try again. NorthWind handed me the FLIR, and I stood just outside my truck, leaning on the door, kinda panning all the way around my truck. The second time I panned around, I saw a white blob in the trees, very bright. It was moving, apparently behind the treeline. I said, " Hey, I think we have something, but I can't tell what it is". Then, it leaned out from behind the tree with UNMISTAKABLE HEAD AND SHOULDERS, and just stood there, looking at us. I said, "We definitely have something!" followed by lots of cussing (mine). I couldn't find the record button in the dark, and scrolled thru the color choices instead. NorthWind came to my side of the truck, found the button and began recording. "I think we've got one!" I said. He replied, "I think there's two!". A monent later, he said, "I think it just stood up, its huge". We passed the FLIR back so I could see it again, and started recording on the night vision binoculars, too. Then he took the FLIR back and said, "Uh oh, they both just disappeared ". "Well, when do you think should we leave?" And NorthWind said, "I don't know where they went, it is time to leave now!" So we did. We were giddy with excitement and shock, though I never really felt frightened, just incredibly surprised to actually get something! We drove to NorthWind's house and uploaded the footage and watched it again. Freaking awesome! These are pix off the computer screen. I don't have any pix, because the night was very dark, and you' ll have to wair for NorthWind to post them.
  7. 3 points
    No, not exactly, but would not be surprised if they manage something similar using various landmarks, seasonal weather changes, and celestial events.
  8. 3 points
    Date & Time - Saturday, July 11, 2020 from 8pm-1230am Location - The Charmed Lake environs, Oregon Cascades Weather - 60 degrees, no wind, perfect What Happened - NorthWind and I went out in the woods and practiced using the FLIR. We went to several spots, and saw several deer and a fox, lots of campers, but no bigfoot. Lookind down into a meadow, and the treeline. What NorthWind looks like 20 feet away on my phone FLIR. Note - if you're gonna buy one, don't go cheap and buy the phone attachment. Save up for the real thing. It's limited. I will basically see something when it's right on top of me, at about 50 feet away. Still, anything like this gives you a bit of peace of mind in the pitch black night.
  9. 3 points
    Yeah. That if Plan A involves you tying a pheromone chip and a used tampon to your belt, skip directly to Plan B.
  10. 3 points
    Here's the thing. Menstruation usually marks the LEAST fertile point of a human female's cycle; strewing used pads or tampons around in the bush might bring attention because it's human blood* but it's certainly not an invitation, pheromone-wise. *apologies to those who thought women secreted Windex; I'm sorry you had to find out this way
  11. 3 points
    Great apes, including humans do not have mating seasons. The wisdom behind the why is that we evolved in tropical climates where there are no seasonal changes in climate. So there is no penalty for having offspring during winter vs summer. Also if reports like Ostman are to be believed? It seems that they may travel in small family groups like Neanderthals. Where a patriarch would have access to females all year long. We don’t know how to love call Bigfoot like we do Elk or Deer or Moose. What we do know how to do is appeal to their stomach. A dying rabbit is a dying rabbit to Bears, Cougars, Bobcats, Wolves, Coyotes, etc...
  12. 3 points
    I’m going to throw this into the ring. I dunno if everyone can see it. Its a bone I found on a hunting trip. That was broken open to get the bone marrow out using a hammer and anvil technique. I donated it to BTW’s bone study. I think it’s strikingly similar to this find. https://www.wired.com/2017/04/130000-year-old-mastodon-threatens-upend-human-history/
  13. 3 points
    reprinted with permission 7/5/2020 The RELICT HOMINOID INQUIRY 4:53-66 (2015) Research Article WILDMEN IN MYANMAR: A COMPENDIUM OF PUBLISHED ACCOUNTS AND REVIEW OF THE EVIDENCE Steven G. Platt1 , Thomas R. Rainwater2 1 Wildlife Conservation Society-Myanmar Program, Office Block C-1, Aye Yeik Mon 1st Street, Hlaing Township, Yangon, Myanmar 2 Baruch Institute of Coastal Ecology and Forest Science, Clemson University, P.O. Box 596, Georgetown, SC 29442, USA *Correspondence to: Thomas R. Rainwater, Email: trrainwater@gmail.com. Telephone/Fax: 806-239-5472 © RHI ABSTRACT. In contrast to other countries in Asia, little is known concerning the possible occurrence of undescribed Hominoidea (i.e., wildmen) in Myanmar (Burma). We here present six accounts from Myanmar describing wildmen or their sign published between 1910 and 1972; three of these reports antedate popularization of wildmen (e.g., yeti and sasquatch) in the global media. Most reports emanate from mountainous regions of northern Myanmar (primarily Kachin State) where wildmen appear to inhabit montane forests. Wildman tracks are described as superficially similar to human (Homo sapiens) footprints, and about the same size to almost twice the size of human tracks. Presumptive pressure ridges were described in one set of wildman tracks. Accounts suggest wildmen are bipedal, 120-245 cm in height, and covered in longish pale to orange-red hair with a head-neck ruff. Wildmen are said to utter distinctive vocalizations, emit strong odors, and sometimes behave aggressively towards humans. Published accounts of wildmen in Myanmar are largely based on narratives provided by indigenous informants. We found nothing to indicate informants were attempting to beguile investigators, and consider it unlikely that wildmen might be confused with other large mammals native to the region. Supernatural status for wildmen seems precluded by the lack of mythical elements in indigenous narratives. Collectively this evidence suggests that a scientifically undescribed bipedal primate may occur in the mountains of northern Myanmar and warrants further investigation. An interview survey of indigenous people in this region would go far towards establishing a basis for future field research. KEY WORDS: Hominoidea, pressure ridge, tracks, traditional ecological knowledge, yeti, yeren, sasquatch INTRODUCTION Taxonomically undescribed Hominoidea (hereafter wildmen sensu Forth, 2008) have long been reported from various regions of Asia, including the Himalayas of India, Nepal, Bhutan, and Tibet (Shipton, 1952; Sanderson, 1961; Napier, 1973; McNeely et al., 1978), central China (Zhou, 1982; Meldrum and Guoxing, 2012), Mongolia (Shackley, 1983), Vietnam (McNeely and Wachtel, 1988; Forth, 2008), Thailand (McNeely and Wachtel, 1988), Peninsular Malaysia (Heuvelmans, 1965; Shuttleworth, 1965; Forth, 2008), Borneo (MacKinnon, 1974; McNeely and Wachtel, 1988), Sumatra (Heuvelmans, 1965; Freeman, 2011), and several Indonesian islands (Forth, 2008). In contrast to other countries within the region, remarkably little is known concerning the possible occurrence of wildmen in Myanmar (formerly Burma). Indeed, in a comprehensive review of wildman records from throughout Southeast Asia, Forth (2008) gives only a single account from Myanmar, that of Blanford (1891:9-10) who described a “tailless ape” standing approximately 1.2 m tall reputed to inhabit the forests around Mount Muleyit in the Tenasserim (now Tanintharyi) Region of southern Myanmar. In an attempt to redress this deficiency, we here present additional published accounts of wildmen in Myanmar gleaned from a variety of hitherto over-looked and generally obscure sources. We present these accounts in chronological order of publication and place each within a specific geographical context. We then summarize and discuss biologically relevant details and synthesize this information into a composite overview of morphology and natural history. Lastly we compare our findings to what is known about wildmen in Asia (particularly the Himalayan ecoregion, but also central China) and North America. METHODS We conducted a wide-ranging search of peer-reviewed scientific sources, popular books and articles, travelogues, and gray literature to locate information on wildmen in Myanmar. Our search proceeded by what Murphy and Henderson (1997:2-3) describe as a "hit-and-miss method with a…snowballing effect," i.e., one literature source often led to several additional sources. Much of our review focused on literature of the British Colonial Era, now largely forgotten, but nonetheless a rich source of natural history information (e.g., Thorbjarnarson et al., 2000, 2006). Although our search was primarily confined to English-language sources, in several in-stances, Burmese articles were translated by a native Burmese speaker who is fluent in English. Our review eventually included 150-200 sources; however, this effort should be considered incomplete because some references proved unobtainable and others were undoubtedly over-looked. We confined our review to the area encompassed within the modern political boundaries of Myanmar (Fig. 1). We use "Myanmar" and "Burma" inter-changeably throughout the text. Because many place names have been changed since publication of the original accounts, we provide both former and new names (when known) in the text. Finally, it should be noted that even today there is no official government gazetteer available and confusion surrounds the correct Anglicized spelling of many place names within Myanmar. WILDMAN NARRATIVES The earliest wildman narrative from Myanmar of which we are aware (excepting Blanford, 1891) is that of Wilson (1910:207). In a book primarily devoted to big game hunting in colonial Burma, Wilson writes that a “Mr. Bruce” (Deputy Conservator of Forests and deemed a “completely credible observer”) and his retinue of camp followers were attacked by a “big ape” while working in the forests along the upper Chindwin River of western Myanmar. Although hesitant to do so, Bruce shot and killed the large primate to “save human life”. Bruce then laid out the corpse, finding “it a little smaller than the orang-outang” [sic] (an adult orangutan [Pongo pygmaeus] measures 120-150 cm in length and weighs 35-100 kg, depending on sex, with males being larger than females; Francis, 2001). Local villagers professed great familiarity with the animal and according to Wilson, the vernacular name (not given) translates as “wild man of the woods”. [Authors note – "Orangutan" is a Malay word meaning "Man of the Forest" (Swindler, 1998). We are unaware of any Burmese language descriptor for wildmen that can be translated as "Man of the Forest".] Brief reference to an undescribed bipedal primate is made by Dawson (1912:11-12) writing in the Burma Gazetteer, a series of informational volumes published by the British Colonial Administration describing the indigenous people, geography, wildlife, and natural resources in specific regions of the country. In a paragraph on wildlife of the Bhamo District, Dawson states that “Several varieties of monkeys abound in the foothills, including the gibbon and a mysterious creature called by the Burmans ‘luwun,’ which walks upright and is covered with a coarse tawny hair, and is possibly one of the larger species of ape. It is reported to have been met on the Tangte hills,” along the eastern bank of the Irrawaddy (now Ayeyarwady) River south of Bhamo. Kaulback (1939: 172-173) provides the only first-person account of an encounter with wildmen in Myanmar that we have been able to locate. While traversing the mountainous northeastern frontier of Burma in search of the source of the Salween (now Thanlwin) River, Kaulback and four indigenous porters came upon a set of five trackways at 16,000 feet (4877 m). Kaulback describes the trackways as “running straight down the side of the valley at what seemed to be an incredible angle.” A thin layer of snow covered the tracks, and although “not very clear … in size and everything else they looked exactly like the prints of a barefooted man." Kaulback initially attributed the tracks to a group of bears (Ursidae) moving between mountain valleys, but his porters steadfastly maintained that no bears occurred in the area. Two porters instead suggested the tracks marked the passing of a group of snow leopards (Panther uncia), something Kaulback immediately discounts, knowing these large cats are solitary except when mating or with kittens. The other two porters claimed the tracks had been made by “mountain men – fearsome creatures who live high up in the snows.” The porters were unanimous in their agreement that such creatures existed, and the oldest (45 years old) had reportedly encountered a "mountain man" while hunting wild ungulates in the same area some years previously. The older porter described the creature as walking bipedally “like a man, white-skinned, naked, and with long fair hair on the shoulders, arms, and head; running at great speed over the snow, and carrying a club.” In the end, unsure what to make of the tracks and seeming to dismiss the porters account out-of-hand, Kaulback concludes the tracks could only have been left by bears. But seemingly uncomfortable with his conclusion, Kaulback states that he would like to return in the future "to find out definitely what these beasts could have been”. Mention of an “unidentified ape” is also made in the Burma Wildlife Survey, an inventory commissioned by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) and American Committee for International Wild Life Protection to determine the status of wildlife and conservation in post-colonial Myanmar (Milton and Estes, 1963: 56). The two authors conducted field surveys in many areas of Myanmar (1959-60), including moun-tainous regions in the northern part of the country. According to Milton and Estes, indigenous hunters in northern Burma maintained “there is another species of ape [besides]…the gibbon, with long reddish or pale hair, found at high altitudes”. Hunters described the call of this primate as “quite different from the gibbon’s [sic] and more human”. San Hta Zin, a member of parliament from Kachin State told the authors that while traversing Chaukan Pass (high mountain pass between Myanmar and India) “many years ago”, he found “manlike tracks” near three alpine pools and later heard a “strange cry”. Lisu tribesmen, an ethnic group renowned for their hunting skills (Diran, 2001), showed the authors a mountain near Putao (formerly Fort Hertz) reputedly inhabited by wildmen. The Lisu claimed to hunt these primates for food, and a resident of Putao reportedly “killed one some years ago”. The Rawangs (another indigenous group in northern Myanmar) were said to believe that "to look upon the ape will cause sickness or death". Milton and Estes offered a substantial reward to anyone who could procure a specimen, but when none was forthcoming concluded “it is hard to decide whether to take all of these reports seriously or not from the available evidence”. Perhaps the most comprehensive account of wildmen in Myanmar is given in a newspaper article published in the English-language newspaper, The Working People’s Daily by Colonel Hla Aung (1969), a career forest officer and well-known zoologist (Khin Ma Ma Thwin et al., 2011). This article was apparently the second that Hla Aung authored on wildmen in Myanmar as part a series on primates published by the newspaper; we have been unable to locate the first. In the article, Hla Aung describes four different encounters with wildmen in the mountains of northern Myanmar. It is unclear if the persons involved directly related their experiences to Hla Aung, or as we consider more likely, he gleaned most of these accounts from secondary sources. The first encounter Hla Aung describes occurred in the area of Urong Thara Pass (3512 m) when a wildman charged an indigenous hunter with “fangs bared and hands raised." The hunter shot “many poisoned arrows” into the wildman, which reeled back and stumbled downhill. Apparently traumatized by the experience, the indigenous hunter reportedly died of “fright” three days later. The second incident occurred in mid-May 1942 during the construction of a military road from Putao to Chaukan Pass in the opening days of World War II. At 2700 m on a spur of the Chaukan Range workers drawing water from an alpine pond came upon fresh tracks described as “very much human, but almost double the size”. Strange vocal-izations (described as “Oo-hu-hu”) were heard by the party when camped that night in the same area. It is possible this incident is a variant of a similar account given earlier by Milton and Estes (1963). A third incident reported by Hla Aung is in our opinion, among the most interesting of wildman records from Myanmar. The incident occurred during November 1946 when a party of government officials was touring the hinterlands beyond Putao. When encamped near Konglu (1828 m; a village five days walk from Putao) on a moonless night, their pack animals took fright and village dogs began barking at the approach of a wild animal. Thinking a tiger (Panthera tigris) was about, the party mounted a vigil and although unable to see anything, was “assailed” by a “very strong obnoxious odor” shortly thereafter. On the following day the party encountered tracks “of some mysterious creature almost double the size of a man’s footprint” along a trail through the mountains. The tracks continued up the footpath and at an elevation of 2430 m veered from the trail and disappeared into dense jungle. Because the footpath was muddy, the tracks were “clearly visible” and according to Hla Aung, the “arch of the foot below the instep … was apparently two inches higher than the level of the heel and toe” [italics added]. The fourth wildman encounter described by Hla Aung occurred in January 1956 when a group of hill tribesmen were traveling from Putao to a Christian revival meeting near Hkrang Hku. While traversing the snowbound Ahku Htara Pass (2743 m), the party inadvertently began following a lengthy trackway through deep snow thinking it had been made by fellow pilgrims. It was only when the trackway began to descend a steep rocky slope did one of the party members suspect the tracks they were following had been left by a wildman rather than a person. The tracks were said to be about the same size as those of a man. The most recently published wildman account is that of Morse (1974:132-134), writing about his experiences as a Christian missionary living among the Kachin of northern Myanmar during the 1950s and 1960s. Morse told of meeting a Lisu friend in 1968 who described an encounter with a wildman that occurred "about a week ago" when he was tracking a musk deer (Moschus sp.) and came upon manlike footprints. According to the hunter, it appeared as though both he and the track maker were in pursuit of the same quarry. The hunter described the tracks as “something like those of a big monkey … twelve to fourteen inches long [ca. 30-36 cm] and shaped like a man’s foot, only narrower.” Intrigued, the hunter began following the tracks and after four or five miles came upon a wildman standing 40-50 feet [12-15 m] away watching as he approached. The wildman was “standing on two legs, … about seven or eight feet tall [213-243 cm], and did not look the least bit human … being covered with reddish brown fur with a sort of mane of longer fur on its head, which looked bigger than a monkey’s”. The hunter found it amusing when the wildman began imitating his movements – “…when I raised my hand, it raised its hand. When I brought up my crossbow to take aim, it pretended to raise a bow and do likewise”. However, this “game came to a sudden end” when the hunter unleashed a poisoned arrow, which struck the wildman in the chest, but dropped out after failing to penetrate the sternum. At this, the wildman turned and fled and the hunter immediately ran to a nearby village, and returned with a friend to assist in tracking the wounded animal. However, it soon became obvious the wildman had not received a lethal dose of arrow poison and the search was abandoned as darkness fell. Morse gave the story credence, adding that his brother (LaVerne Morse, also a missionary) had encountered a similar set of wildman tracks in the mountains east of Putao “around 1955”. Morse calls the tracks “strangely human” and concludes “from all reports … the yeti does exist, but in small numbers and in regions so inhospitable that human beings are seldom, if ever, on hand to glimpse them." DISCUSSION Our literature review found six accounts describing wildmen or their sign in Myanmar published between 1910 and 1974, complementing the earlier report of Blanford (1891). Although our review was wide-ranging and included a variety of sources, it was not exhaustive and other wildman reports from Myanmar undoubtedly remain to be uncovered. Notably, four accounts (57%) (Blanford, 1891; Wilson, 1910; Dawson, 1912; Kaulback, 1939) significantly predate popularization of the yeti during the 1950s (Shipton, 1952; Izzard, 1955; Stonor, 1955) and later newspaper reports from northern California, USA that brought sasquatch to the attention of a global audience (Meldrum, 2006). Furthermore, at least two encounters with wildmen described by Hla Aung (1969) occurred during the 1940s, well before knowledge of cryptic hominoids had been widely disseminated. The timing of these publications is of interest because critics frequently contend that wildman narratives are merely an outgrowth of sensationalized media coverage of yeti and sasquatch, all the while ignoring a considerable body of evidence antedating the popularization of these animals (Meldrum, 2006; Bindernagel, 2010). The paucity of more recent (1980-2015) wildman reports is unsurprising given that Myanmar, long isolated under military rule and considered among the most reclusive nations in the world (Steinberg, 2001) was 1) for the most part closed to foreign investigators from the mid-1960s through the late 1990s, 2) collaboration between Myanmar and foreign researchers was actively discouraged by government policy during this period, and 3) funding was unavailable for government-sponsored domestic scientific research by Myanmar academics. Even now (2015), some areas within Myanmar remain closed to scientific research owing to security concerns and chronic, low-intensity military conflicts. When researchers have taken to the field the results are impressive with the discovery of new species (Rabinowitz et al., 1999; Rappole et al., 2005; Geissman et al., 2011; Dever et al., 2012), rediscovery of species believed extinct (Platt et al., 2005; Kuchling et al., 2006; Rheindt et al., 2014), and significant range extensions (Rabinowitz and Saw Tun Khaing, 1998; S. Platt et al., 2014), including records of many species not previously thought to occur in Myanmar (King et al., 2001; K. Platt et al., 2014). Recently described and "rediscovered" taxa in Myanmar range in size from small amphibians (Dever et al., 2012) and birds (Rappole et al., 2005; Rheindt et al., 2014) to larger mammals, including a cervid (Rabinowitz et al., 1999) and primate (Geissman et al., 2011). Taken together, this body of research indicates the biodiversity of Myanmar remains incom-pletely known with much yet to be discovered. With two exceptions (Blanford, 1891; Wilson, 1910), reports of Burmese wildmen emanate from Kachin State in northernmost Myanmar (Dawson, 1912; Kaulback, 1939; Milton and Estes, 1963; Hla Aung, 1969; Morse, 1974). Notably, northeastern Kachin State is also where the recently described Burmese snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus strykeri) was discovered (Geissman et al., 2011) suggesting this area is biotically under-explored and might host other unknown primates. Kachin State (Fig. 1) is bordered by India to the west and China in the north and east, and considered among the most remote and least known regions of Southeast Asia (Rabinowitz, 2001; Khin Ma Ma Thwin et al., 2011). Much of Kachin State is encompassed within the Himalayan Ecoregion and consists of extremely rugged mountainous terrain (maximum elevation = 5710 m) characterized by a diverse matrix of plant communities that correspond to gradients in elevation, slope, and aspect (Rabinowitz et al., 1999; Rabinowitz, 2001; Rao et al., 2011). Kingdon-Ward (1954) classified the plant communities of Kachin State along an elevation gradient as lowland forest (to 700 m), subtropical hill forest (700-1700 m), warm temperate rainforest (1700-2700 m), cold temperate rainforest (2700-3000 m), Rhododendron-silver fir (Abies alba) forest (3000-3700 m), and subalpine scrub (3700-4000 m). The upper Chindwin River (by convention upstream from Homalin), where a wildman was reportedly shot by a colonial forest officer (Wilson, 1910) is in Sagaing Division, which together with Shan State forms the southern boundary of Kachin State. Sagaing Division encompasses much of the Naga Hills, a highland region (maximum elevation = 3825 m) contiguous with the mountains of Kachin State. Unfortunately, little habitat-specific infor-mation accompanies most wildman narratives from Myanmar. Elevations given in descript-tions of trackways and encounters range from 1800 to 4800 m (Kaulback, 1939; Hla Aung, 1969 Morse, 1974) strongly suggesting that if such creatures exist, Burmese wildmen inhabit upper montane forests (warm temperate rainforest, cold temperate rainforest, and Rhododendron-silver fir forest of Kingdon-Ward, 1954). McNeely et al. (1978) likewise concluded that yeti are largely restricted to the montane forest zone (2800-4500 m) in the Himalayas, and attribute tracks found in high-elevation snowfields and glaciers (e.g., Shipton, 1952; Cronin, 1979) to animals moving between forested valleys across the intervening high mountain passes. McNeely et al. (1978) considered the diversity of plant and animal resources in montane forest habitats sufficiently ample to support large primates. Indeed, snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus spp.) inhabiting high-elevation forests have evolved physiological traits allowing them to consume a diet of such hard-to-digest foods as leaves, bark, lichens, and Pinus seeds (Zhou et al., 2014). In Myanmar, montane forests and other high elevation habitats are above the upper elevational limits of shifting cultivation (approximately 1500 m, but often lower; Platt el al., 2013), and rarely visited by indigenous people except to hunt, collect non-timber forest resources (particularly medicinal plants), and graze mithun (Bos frontalis) and mithun-yak hybrids (B. frontalis × grunniens) (Robert Tizard, Wildlife Conservation Society-Myanmar Program, pers. comm.). Inaccessibility of montane habitats coupled with the reported nocturnal habits of wildmen (Hla Aung, 1969) make encounters with humans (Homo sapiens) infrequent and might contribute to perceptions of rarity by indigenous people (Milton and Estes, 1963; Morse, 1974). Wildmen tracks are mentioned in three of the published accounts from Myanmar (Kaulback, 1939; Hla Aung, 1969; Morse, 1974). Tracks represent an important body of scientific data that can reveal a great deal about the natural history of an organism to an experienced observer (Stander et al., 1997) and provide a degree of objectivity not always attainable with other types of observational data (Meldrum, 2006). Wildman tracks from Myanmar are described as being superficially similar to human footprints (presumably pentadactyl), and approximately the same size (Kaulback, 1939) to almost twice the size of human tracks (Hla Aung, 1969). Assuming the accounts are accurate (see below), such variability is to be expected in physical attributes of any natural population (Fahrenbach, 1998). Only Morse (1974) provides a quantitative estimate of track length; at 14-16 inches (ca. 35-40 cm) these tracks were larger than the footprints of most adult human males and similar in size to purported tracks of the North American sasquatch (Fahrenbach, 1998; Meldrum, 2004, 2006) and Chinese yeren (Meldrum and Guoxing, 2012). Morse (1974) also stated that wildman tracks were narrower than human footprints, an attribute not mentioned in other accounts. Nor do any accounts from Myanmar mention a divergent hallux (great toe) as often seen in yeti tracks from the Himalayas (Meldrum, 2006). To our knowledge, plaster casts or photographs of wildman tracks have never been made in Myanmar, an important consideration when evaluating track evidence because the active constructional nature of the human mind makes it near-certain that recollections will change unless recorded in hard form (Forman and Russell, 1983; Bates and Byrne, 2007). Recollections are even less reliable when people are confronted by novel or threatening experiences (e.g., encountering large tracks of a potentially aggressive and dangerous animal). Intriguingly, Hla Aung (1969) described what seem to be pressure ridges ("…arch of the foot below the instep…was apparently two inches higher than the level of the heel and toe") in wildman tracks left along a muddy footpath. Pressure ridges are dynamic features of tracks formed when a relatively plastic substrate (e.g., mud) is forced upwards proximal to the midfoot as the animal moves forward (Meldrum, 2004, 2006). Pressure ridges are a consequence of the midtarsal flexibility of the hominoid foot, which unlike that of humans lacks a fixed longitudinal arch and specialized weight-bearing ball; weight is instead distributed more evenly across the plantar surface (Meldrum, 2004, 2006). Midfoot or midtarsal pressure ridges are considered a distinctive signature of North American sasquatch tracks (Meldrum, 2004, 2007) and were recently noted in tracks attributed to the Chinese yeren (Meldrum and Guoxing, 2012), but to our knowledge have not been previously described in wildman tracks from the Himalayan region. According to Meldrum and Guoxing (2012), the presence of midfoot pressure ridges in hominoid tracks from North America and western China provides independent corroboration of an undescribed bipedal hominoid with a circum-Pacific distribution. Confirmation of similar pressure ridges in hominoid tracks from Myanmar would obviously lend further support to this hypothesis. Although accounts vary, the composite picture that emerges from physical descriptions of Burmese wildmen is one of a bipedal hominoid standing 120-245 cm in height, covered in longish pale-tawny-orange-red hair with a prominent head-neck ruff of longer hair. This morphotype is reflected in the Burmese vernacular name luwun (Dawson, 1912), which translates literally as "Man Bear" suggesting a hirsute, bipedal non-human primate. For the most part, descriptions of Burmese wildmen are consistent with accounts of the yeti (Sanderson, 1961; Napier, 1973), and display considerable resemblance to the Chinese yeren (Zhou, 1982; Meldrum and Guoxing, 2012). Burmese wildmen are also said to emit a pungent, noxious body odor (Hla Aung, 1969), utter distinctive vocalizations (Milton and Estes, 1963; Hla Aung, 1969), and on occasion exhibit aggressive behavior directed at humans (Wilson, 1910; Kaulback, 1939; Hla Aung, 1969), all of which are common elements of wildman reports from the Himalayas (Izzard, 1955; Stonor, 1955; Sanderson, 1961; Napier, 1973) and North America (Greenwell et al., 1999; Meldrum, 2006). Bindernagel (1998) maintains that many behaviors attributed to North American sasquatch (and by extension to Asian hominoids) have also been observed in field studies of great apes. Moreover, anecdotal observations and empirical studies by primatologists suggest male orangutans and gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) are capable of emitting pungent odors when in a state of excitement or agitation (Meldrum, 2006; Klailova and Lee, 2014). As by now obvious, wildman reports from Myanmar are overwhelmingly based on the traditional ecological knowledge (TEK; also known as "folk knowledge") of indigenous informants. Kaulback (1939) appears to be the only authority with firsthand experience of wildmen and even his narrative draws heavily on input from his indigenous porters. TEK is defined as a cumulative body of knowledge concerning the relationship of organisms with one another and their environment, empirically acquired, and passed down by oral tradition (Berkes et al., 2000; Huntington, 2000). For a variety of reasons science has been slow to embrace TEK as a research methodology (Huntington 2000; Nadasdy, 2003), and folk accounts of cryptic hominoids are usually dismissed as inaccurate exaggerations of credulous peoples, deliberate attempts to dupe investigators, or descriptions of imaginary, non-empirical beings (Meldrum, 2006; Forth, 2012). In short, rather than serving as a starting point for serious enquiry, ethnographic evidence of hominoids is generally ignored and often trivialized by natural scientists (Forth, 2012). That said, we find nothing in Burmese wildman narratives to suggest indigenous informants were deliberately attempting to beguile investigators. We also consider it implausible that wildmen would be confused with bears (Ursus thibetanus and U. malayanus), langurs (Trachypithecus spp.) or macaques (Macaca spp.) by indigenous people who regularly hunt these taxa for subsistence and commercial purposes (Rabinowitz et al., 1998; Rao et al., 2005). Furthermore, while acknowledging that ethnographic data should never be uncritically accepted by natural scientists, we see no a priori reason to dismiss folk accounts simply because indigenous people lack scientific training. Our view is consistent with a growing body of literature indicating that indigenous people can be reliable observers of the natural world and make significant contributions to science and natural resource management (Gilchrist et al., 2005; Anadón et al., 2008; Davy et al., 2011; Meijaard et al., 2011; Nabhan and Martinez, 2012; Cano and Telleria 2013). Neither are we ready to ascribe supernatural status to the Burmese wildman given that indigenous accounts contain remarkably few mythical elements. Moreover, the fact that wildman reports are for the most part centered on a specific region with distinct ecological boundaries argues for the existence of a real animal rather than a cultural construct inhabiting only the ima-gination of informants. We contend that a mythical animal, not being constrained by ecological or biogeographical factors, would be more widely reported within Myanmar. On a continuum of scientific credibility with imaginary beings at one end and empirical referents (i.e., species recognized by modern science) at the other (Forth, 2012), the Burmese wildman would seem to fall somewhere just short of the latter. In contrast to North America, where critics argue the dearth of fossil evidence precludes the existence of an undescribed primate such as sasquatch (Meldrum, 2006), primates including hominoids are well-represented in the fossil record of mainland Southeast Asia and adjacent southern China (Kelley, 2002; Chaimanee et al., 2008; Jaeger et al., 2011; Harrison et al., 2014; Zhang et al., 2014). Of particular relevance to the reports of wildmen in Myanmar are Gigantopithecus blacki, which persisted until the Middle Pleistocene in southern China and possibly elsewhere (Zhao and Zhang, 2013) and several species of Pongo, one (P. devosi) of which survived into the Holocene on mainland Southeast Asia (Delgado and van Schaik, 2000; Harrison et al., 2014). Undiscovered relict populations of Gigantopithecus blacki in North America and Asia have been proposed to explain sasquatch and yeti, respectively (reviewed by Meldrum, 2006), and some elements of Burmese wildman narratives (e.g., large body size and hirsuteness) are consistent with physical reconstructions of this taxa by Ciochon et al. (1990). Conversely, the wildman described by Blanford (1891) bears a notable resemblance to Pongo (e.g., tailless with long, deep ferruginous hair, body size consistent with female P. pygmaeus). In conclusion, the wildman narratives we review here together with the rich fossil record suggest that a bipedal primate as yet unknown to science may inhabit high-elevation forests in the mountains of northern Myanmar. Although funding agencies have so far proved reluctant to support research on cryptic hominoids, scientists working in the region should be alert to the possibility of collecting additional evidence in the form of casts or photographs of tracks, hair and fecal samples, or even physical remains obtained from hunters. Most importantly, indigenous peoples should be solicited for additional information about wildmen. An in-depth interview survey (e.g., Meijaard et al., 2011) would go far towards establishing a basis for future field research and perhaps provide tentative answers to questions concerning the natural history of undescribed hominoids in Myanmar. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We thank Madeline Thompson and Deb Levinson (Wildlife Conservation Society-New York) for locating a number of obscure references, Kyaw Zay Ya for preparing our map, and Kalyar Platt for translating Burmese sources into English. We are also grateful to Saw Tun Khaing for bringing the newspaper article by Colonel Hla Aung to our attention many years ago, thus sparking our interest in Burmese wildmen. Our manuscript benefited greatly from discussions with our Burmese colleagues, Robert Tizard, and comments by Anna Nekaris and two anonymous reviewers. Support for SGP was provided by Wildlife Conservation Society-Myanmar Program. LITERATURE CITED Anadón JD, Giménez A, Ballester R, and Pérez I (2008) Evaluation of local knowledge as a method for collecting extensive data on animal abundance. Conservation Biology 23:617-625. Bates LA and Byrne RW (2007) Creative or created: using anecdotes to investigate animal cognition. Methods 42:12-21. Berkes F, Colding J, and Folkes C (2000) Rediscovery of traditional ecological knowledge as adaptive management. Ecological Applications 10:1251-1262. Blanford WT (1891) The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Volume 2. Mammalia. London: Taylor and Francis. Bindernagel JA (1998) North America's Great Ape: The Sasquatch. Courtenay, British Columbia: Beachcomber Books. Bindernagel JA (2010) The Discovery of the Sasquatch: Reconciling Culture, History, and Science in the Discovery Process. Courtenay, British Columbia: Beachcomber Books. Cano LS and Telleria JL (2013) Local ecological knowledge as a tool for assessing the status of threatened vertebrates: a case study in Vietnam. Oryx 47:177-183. Chaimanee Y, Yamee C, Tian P, Chavasseau O, and Jaeger J-J (2008) First Middle Miocene sivaladapid primate from Thailand. Journal of Human Evolution 54:434-443. Ciochon RJ, Olsen J, and James J (1990) Other Origins: The Search for the Giant Ape in Human Prehistory. New York: Bantam Books. Cronin EW, Jr. (1979) The Arun: A Natural History of the World's Deepest Valley. Boston: Hiughton Mifflin. Davy CM, Méndez de la Cruz FR, Lathrop A, and Murphy RW (2011) Seri Indian traditional knowledge and molecular biology agree: no express train for islandhopping spiny-tailed iguanas in the Sea of Cortés. Journal of Biogeography 38:272–284. Dawson GW (1912) The Bhamo District. Burma Gazetteer. Rangoon: Government Printing Office. Delgado R and van Schaik C (2000) The behavioral ecology of the orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus): a tale of two islands. Evolutionary Anthropology 9:201-218. Dever J, Fuiton AM, Konu O, and Wilkinson JA (2012) Cryptic torrent frogs of Myanmar: An examination of the Amolops marmoratus species complex with resurrection of Amolops afghanus and the identification of a new species. Copeia 2012:57-76. Diran RK (2001). The Vanishing Tribes of Burma. New York: Sterling Publishing. Fahrenbach WH (1998) Sasquatch: size, scaling, and statistics. Cryptozoology 13:47-75. Forman RT and Russell EW (1983) Evaluation of historical data. Ecological Society Bulletin 64:5-7. Forth G (2008) Images of the Wildman in Southeast Asia: An Anthropological Perspective. New York: Routledge. Forth G (2012) Are legendary hominoids worth looking for? Anthropology Today 28:13-16. Francis CM (2001) Photographic Guide to Mammals of Thailand and South-east Asia. Bangkok: New Holland Publishers and Asia Books Company, Ltd. Freeman R (2011) Orang-pendek: In Search of Sumatra’s Forgotten Ape. North Devon: CFZ Press. Geissman T, Ngwe Lwin, Saw Soe Aung, Thet Naing Aung, Zin Myo Aung, Tint Htin Hla, Grindley M, and Momberg F (2011) A new species of snub-nosed monkey, Genus Rhinopithecus Milne-Edwards, 1872 (Primates, Colobinae), from northern Kachin State, northwestern Myanmar. American Journal of Primatology 73:96-107. Gilchrist G, Mallory M, and Merkel F (2005) Can local ecological knowledge contribute to wildlife management? Case studies of migratory birds. Ecology and Society 10:20–31. Greenwell JR, Meldrum DJ, Slack MT, and Greenwell DA (1999) A Sasquatch field project in Northern California: Report of the 1997 Six Rivers National Forest Expedition. Cryptozoology 13:76-87. Harrison T, Jin C, Zhang Y, Wang Y, and Zhu M (2014) Fossil Pongo from early Pleistocene Gigantopithecus fauna of Chongzuo, Guangxi, southern China. Quaternary International 354:56-67. Heuvelmans B (1965) On the Track of Unknown Animals. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press. Hla Aung (1969) The Yetis or Snowmen in Burma. Rangoon: The Working People’s Daily, Sunday Supplement 11 May 1969. [Copy archived in Vertebrate Collection of the Campbell Museum, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina]. Huntington HP (2000) Using traditional ecological knowledge in science: methods and applications. Ecological Applications 10:1270-1274. Izzard, R (1955) The Abominable Snowman Adventure. London: Hodder and Stoughton. Jaeger J-J, Aung Naing Soe, Chavasseau O, Coster P, Emonet E-G, Guy F, Lebrum R, Aye Maung, Aung Aung hyaw, Hla Shwe, Soe Thura Tun, Kyaw Linn Oo, Rugbumrung M, Bocherens H, Benammi M, Chaivanich K, Tafforeau P, and Chaimanee Y (2011) First Hominoid from Late Miocene of the Irrawaddy Formation (Myanmar). PLoS ONE 6(4):e17065. Kaulback R (1939) Salween. New York: Harcourt, Brace, and Company. Kelley J (2002) The hominoid radiation in Asia. In: Hartwig WC, editor. The Primate Fossil Record. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 369-384. Khin Ma Ma Thwin H, Kyi Soe Lwin, Renner SC, and Dumbacher JP (2011) Ornithology of Northern Myanmar. Ornithological Monographs 70:109-141. King B, Buck H, Ferguson R, Fisher T, Goblet C, Nickel H, and Suter W (2001) Birds recorded during two expeditions to North Myanmar (Burma). Forktail 17:29-40. Kingdon-Ward F (1954) Report on the forests of the North Triangle, Kachin State, North Burma. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 52:304-320. Klailova M and Lee PC (2014) Wild western lowland gorillas signal selectivity using odor. Plos One 9(7):e99554. Kuchling G, Win Ko Ko, Sein Aung Min, Tint Lwin, Khin Myo Myo, Thin Thin Khaing (1), Thin Thin Khaing (2), Win Mar Mar, and Ni Ni Win (2006) Two remnant populations of the roofed turtle Kachuga trivittata in the upper Ayeyarwady River system, Myanmar. Oryx 40:176-182. MacKinnon J (1974) In Search of the Red Ape. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston. McNeely JA, Cronin EW, and Emery HB (1978) The Yeti – not a Snowman. Oryx 12:65–73. McNeely JA and Wachtel PS (1988) Soul of the Tiger: Searching for Nature’s Answers in Exotic Southeast Asia. New York: Doubleday. Meijaard E, Mengerson K, Buchori D, Nurchayo A, Ancrenaz M, Wich S, Atmoko SSU, Tiju A, Prasetyo D, Nardiyono, Hadiprakarsa Y, Christy L, Wells J, Albar G, and Marshall AJ (2011) Why don't we ask? A complimentary method for assessing the status of great apes. Plos One 6(3):e18008. Meldrum DJ (2004) Midfoot flexibility, fossil footprints, and Sasquatch steps: new perspectives on the evolution of bipedalism. Journal of Scientific Exploration 18:65-79. Meldrum DJ (2007) Ichnotaxonomy of giant hominoid tracks in North America. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin 42:225-231. Meldrum, J (2006) Sasquatch: Legend Meets Science. New York: Tom Doherty Books. Meldrum J and Guoxing Z (2012) Footprint evidence of the Chinese Yeren. Relict Hominoid Inquiry 1:57-66. Milton O and Estes RD (1963) Burma Wildlife Survey (1959-1960). New York: Special Publication No. 15, American Committee for International Wild Life Protection. Morse E (1974) Exodus to a Hidden Valley. New York: E.P. Dutton & Company, Inc. Murphy JC and Henderson RW (1997) Tales of Giant Snakes: A Historical Natural History of Anacondas and Pythons. Malabar, Florida: Krieger Publishing Company. Nabhan GP and Martinez D (2012) Traditional ecological knowledge and endangered species recovery: Is ethnobiology for the birds? Journal of Ethnobiology 32:1-5. Napier J (1973) Bigfoot: The Yeti and Sasquatch in Myth and Reality. New York: E.P. Dutton & Company. Nadasdy P (2003) Revaluating the co-management success story. Arctic 56:367-380. Platt K, Platt SG, and Rainwater TR (2014) First record of the spiny turtle (Heosemys spinosa) in Myanmar. Chelonian Conservation and Biology 13:257-260. Platt SG, Platt K, and Khin Myo Myo (2013) An expedition to central and western Myanmar: Minzontaung Wildlife Sanctuary, upper Chindwin River, and Naga Hills. Bronx, New York: Unpublished Report to Wildlife Conservation Society. Platt SG, Platt K, Lay Lay Khaing, Thin Thin Yu, Me Me Soe, San San New, Thet Zaw Naing, and Rainwater TR (2014) Heosemys depressa in the southern Chin Hills of Myanmar: A significant range extension and traditional ecological knowledge. Chelonian Conservation and Biology 13:252-256. Platt SG, Win Ko Ko, Lay Lay Khaing, Khin Myo Myo, Kalyar, and Rainwater TR (2005) Noteworthy records and comments on selected species of turtles from the Ayeyarwady, Chindwin, and Dokhtawady rivers, Myanmar. Chelonian Conservation and Biology 4:942-948. Rabinowitz A (2001) Beyond the Last Village: A Journey of Discovery in Asia's Forbidden Wilderness. Washington, DC: Island Press. Rabinowitz A and Saw Tun Khaing (1998) Status of selected mammal species in north Myanmar. Oryx 32:201-208. Rabinowitz A, Than Myint, Saw Tun Khaing, and Rabinowitz S (1999) Description of the leaf deer (Muntiacus putaoensis), a new species of muntjac from Northern Myanmar. Journal of Zoology (London) 249:427-435. Rao M, Than Myint, Than Zaw, and Saw Htun (2005) Hunting patterns in tropical forests adjoining HkakaboraziNational Park, north Myanmar. Oryx 39:292-300. Rao M, Than Zaw, Saw Htun, and Than Myint (2011) Hunting for a living: Wildlife trade, rural livelihoods and declining wildlife in Hkakaborazi National Park, North Myanmar. Environmental Management 48:158-167. Rappole JH, Renner SC, Shew NM, and Sweet PR (2005) A new species of Jabouilleia from the sub-Himalayan region of Myanmar. Auk 122:1064-1069. Rheindt FE, Tizard R, Nila Pwint, and Naing Lin (2014) Rediscovery of Myanmar's Jerdon's Babbler Chrysomma altirostre altirostre. Birding Asia 22:13-15. Sanderson IT (1961) Abominable Snowmen: Legend Come to Life. Philadelphia: Clinton Book Company. Shackley M (1983) Wildmen: Yeti, Sasquatch, and the Neanderthal Enigma. London: Thames and Hudson, Ltd. Shipton E (1952) The Mount Everest Reconnaissance Expedition. New York: E.P. Dutton. Shuttleworth C (1965) Malayan Safari. London: Phoenix House. Stander PE, Tsisaba GD, Oma, and Ui (1997) Tracking and the interpretation of spoor: a scientifically sound method in ecology. Journal of Zoology (London) 242:329-341. Steinberg DI (2001) Burma: The State of Myanmar. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press. Stonor C (1955) The Sherpa and the Snowman. London: Hollis and Carter. Swindler DR (1998) Introduction to the Primates. Seattle: University of Washington Press. Thorbjarnarson JB, Platt SG, and Saw Tun Khaing (2000) Conservation status of freshwater turtles in Meinmahla Kyun Wildlife Sanctuary and vicinity, Myanmar. Natural History Bulletin of the Siam Society 48:185-191. Thorbjarnarson JB, Platt SG, Win Ko Ko, Khin Myo Myo, Lay Lay Khaing, Kalyar, and Holmstrom B (2006) Crocodiles in Myanmar: Species diversity, historic accounts, and current population status and conservation. Herpetological Natural History 10:77-89. Wilson D (1910) Anecdotes of Big Cats and Other Beasts. London: Methuen & Company, Ltd. Zhang Y, Jin C, Cai Y, Kono R, Wang W, Wang Y, Zhu M, and Yan Y (2014) New 400-320 ka Gigantopithecus blacki remains from Heliang Cavem Chongzuo City, Guangxi, South China. Quaternary International 354:35-45. Zhao L and Zhang L (2013) New fossil evidence and diet analysis of Gigantopithecus blacki and its distribution and extinction in South China. Quaternary International 286:69-74. Zhou G (1982) The status of Wildman research in China. Cryptozoology 1:13-23. Zhou X, Wang B, Pan Q, Zhang J, Kumar S, Sun X, Liu Z, Pan H, Lin Y, Liu G, Zhan W, Li M, Ren B, Ma X, Ruan H, Cheng C, Wang D, Shi F, Hui Y, Tao Y, Zhang C, Zhu P, Xiang Z, Jiang W, Chang J, Wang H, Cao Z, Jiang Z, Li B, Yang G, Roos C, Garber PA, Buford MW, Li R, Li M (2014) Whole-genome sequencing of the snub-nosed monkey provides insights into folivory and evolutionary history. Nature Genetics 46:13013-1310. Steven G. Platt was formerly an Associate Professor in the Biology Department at Sul Ross State University (2006-2011), and now serves as the Regional Conservation Herpetologist for Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) in Southeast Asia. He received his B.S. in Forestry and Wildlife Management from Louisiana State University (1985), M.S. in Biology from Southeastern Louisiana University (1990), and Ph.D. in Zoology from Clemson University (1996). His current focus is the study and conservation of turtles and crocodilians in Southeast Asia, primarily in Myanmar where, together with his wife Kalyar Platt (Turtle Survival Alliance – Myanmar Program), he is conducting conservation programs for the endemic and critically endangered Burmese Star Tortoise and Burmese Roofed Turtle. Outside of Myanmar, Platt works closely with the WCS Cambodia Program on Southern River Terrapin and Siamese crocodile conservation issues, and has been collaborating with Chinese scientists to restore Chinese alligators to Yangtze River wetlands. Platt has co-authored numerous scientific papers on crocodilians and turtles, and in 2014 received the Castillo Award for crocodile conservation from the IUCN/SSC Crocodile Specialist Group. Thomas Rainwater is formerly a Wildlife Toxicologist for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and is now Wildlife Research Coordinator at the Baruch Institute of Coastal Ecology and Forest Science with Clemson University. He received his B.S. in Biology from Furman University (1989), M.S. in Environmental Toxicology from Clemson University (1994), and Ph.D. in Environmental Toxicology from Texas Tech University (2003). For the last 25 years, he has worked on various field projects in the United States, Central America, and Asia focusing on the biology, ecotoxicology, and conservation of wildlife, particularly reptiles and birds. Much of his recent research has focused on the impacts of environmental pollution, habitat alteration, and over-exploitation on endangered crocodilians and turtles. Rainwater has co-authored numerous scientific papers on these and other topics and currently serves as Vice Chair for North America for the IUCN/SSC Crocodile Specialist Group. Figure 1. Map of Myanmar showing political boundaries of Kachin State, Shan State, and Sagaing Division, major rivers, principal urban centers, and localities mentioned in text. Place names in accordance with current usage.
  14. 2 points
    Just got back from 6 days of exploring a small portion of the Six Rivers National Forest and the Siskiyou Wilderness in Northern California. Spent 2 nights car camping in the SRNF and 3 nights backpacking into the wilderness. The best part of the trip was the backpacking part, since I went deeper into the wilderness and I saw plenty of wildlife. Below are some pictures of the wilderness area and the lake where I camped the first night. Also showing a picture of my thermal imager setup. This was the first time that I backpacked with a large lithium battery (the Jackery 240 Wh portable power bank). I had backpacked before with my full size tripod, since the image quality is better when stable. I wanted to test the ability to run the thermal imager and video record all night (8 hours) for 3 nights (without having to monitor and replace the 4 AA lithium batteries every 7 to 8 hours). First night, I heard noises coming from the brush, got out of the tent ~9:38 PM, started recording on the thermal, and saw the buck in the photo. The unit recorded as the buck came out of the bush and walked in front of thermal imager. The time stamp and date on this FLIR unit is not correct and cannot be fixed (apparently the battery that runs the clock is internal to the unit and cannot be replaced unless I ship the unit to manufacturer; this is a design flaw). The 2nd FLIR photo was the 2nd night and occurred down 600 ft in the valley. Again, I left the unit running all night for 8 hours and it captured this bear walking towards the creek. While the photo is not clear (because the bear is far), the video shows its bear shape and motions more clearly. BTW, the buck moved on to the other side of the lake and disturbed the only other backpacker there from 1 to 4 AM. I saw the guy in the morning and he was so scared that he did not sleep and started a fire. He never saw what was making all the noises and stumping the ground. I told him it was the buck, since it did the same in my campground earlier that night. Not sure what was the problem with this buck, but I also captured a doe in the imager that came later, so maybe the buck wanted to clear the area? I was happy to have a thermal imager and see what was making the noises.
  15. 2 points
    Yep. Not "child" voices as depicted on the show exactly. I've heard the little mumbly / giggly voices once in 2013. I had a clear daylight sighting about 45 minutes later. Another time I was walking up a somewhat seldom used USFS trail approaching a bend. I heard what I thought was a teen girl "shush" ing a dog, assumed she knew I was approaching, and was commanding it to sit. Couldn't make out the words, that was just the tone. Turned the corner ... nobody. I could see 100 yards or more ahead, behind, up the ridge above the trail, and quite a bit farther on a open timbered flat by the creek. There was nobody there. Beats me.
  16. 2 points
    I have audio... lots of audio. I don't think any of this is prize worthy, but hey... I could use the money so it's worth a shot. This is the most recent... This is the censored VERSION. I was not present at the time, but my recorder was. The uncensored version is posted in the Tar Pit. This may have speech from whatever threw the rock at my friends. This happened in Iowa, on June 16th of this year. I have SEVERAL instances over the last few years, of rocks thrown onto this bridge while we were there (Hear most of them here) Here is the first rock throw I experienced in 2017. It actually hit me. I also have a knock, recorded in May 2016 in Iowa Here is another Want a Whoop? This one was recorded in Yellow River State Forest, the evening after the Finding Bigfoot Crew left, In July of 2016. The bug noise you hear is SPECIFICALLY why I developed the low pass microphones. It is extremely annoying. Here is another, from May 2016 in a different Iowa location, but the same general location as the 2016 Wood Knock. I also have howls, but cannot be sure that other squatchers didn't do these. Here is a clip from the Omaha Rez, in 2018 with Whoops and howls.
  17. 2 points
    Some, but not always, not even in the extreme cases. A friend reports a habituation setting at her father's house. They saw a bigfoot duck slightly to go under a branch on a tree by the shop. Might have hit, might not have, but very close. She says they measured that branch from the ground and it is very very near 14 feet. The first one I saw was .. well, I spent a lot of years and a lot of brain sweat trying to make it more acceptably short, but with water 4-1/2 to 5 feet deep .. hits me under the chin and I'm 5'9" .. hitting the bigfoot at crotch level, and their leg length is proportionally less than ours, I can't see any way to conveniently turn what I saw into a more acceptable 9-1/2 feet, it had to be 10-1/2 feet or a little taller. So part of the question of estimating height is "do you have a reliable yardstick of some sort you can compare the bigfoot to, then measure later." And in both cases, hers and mine, there were indeed things for reliable comparison. So you can either accept my report of what I saw, and the size, or you can call me a liar. There is no third option. What you could do, if you want an educated understanding of height, is take a look at Henner Fahrenbach's data. Real biological critters' physical attributes will generally follow a bell curve distribution. Delusions and attention getting attempts do not. So look at the data and decide. One caution ... the big ones start small and grow. Also, we are more likely to see adolescent males out misbehaving as our own adolescent males do than mature adults who are more cautious. Taken together, that skews the data slightly downward regarding average size. While you're looking at his height data, take a look at the height vs foot size comparisons. 3/4ths of a mile from where I saw the very large dude walking down the river, I found a line of tracks that were 24-1/2 inches long with 6-1/2 feet between consecutive steps, left and right. It was in thin mud over a layer of hard rock so any tracks of a hoaxer within 15-20 feet would have been glaringly obvious. If it was a hoax, someone managed to step, walking, not running, 6-1/2 feet in 24-1/2 inch long "shoes" carrying upwards of 800 pounds on their back. To me .. not feasible. Those tracks were what they appeared to be, nothing more, nothing less. MIB
  18. 2 points
    I have thought about this too, but somehow using a sexual lure to bring in an excited and romantically inclined alpha male with one thing on his mind close to me just doesn't sit well. Best bring a little vaseline though, just in case. Good luck, and welcome to the forum.
  19. 2 points
    Mark & Kerry, thanks for the presentation. Sasquatch Habitat Investigation Team uses the acronym S.H.I.T. ...................I don't think that I can un-see that or un-hear the jokes.
  20. 2 points
    Yeah, the producer is a member here. Great job NorthWind and Madison!
  21. 2 points
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  23. 2 points
    I find comfort in the fact I do not see things that are invisible to others. That way I don't need the medication that would be prescribed. So far I have never mentioned BF to a medical doctor. I came close to discussing BF with my dogs vet one time but thought better of it. These are dangerous times for anyone who stands out as different.
  24. 2 points
  25. 2 points
    The Juan de Fuca Trail is not for the faint of heart. It is very rugged in spots. There are ladders, stairs, log climbs, etc. The whole trail can take a week to complete. There are numerous reports of trailgoers seeing in-line trackways with 15"+ footprints on the beaches, that were not there the night before. Often, they go right by the set up tents.There are native stories of Sasquatch all along the west coast of Vancouver Island, as much of it is remote and uninhabited.
  26. 2 points
  27. 2 points
    Thanks, but I am good. I'm looking forward to reviewing some of the submitted evidence. Just hoping to help get the ball rolling and encourage some others to jump in and share.
  28. 2 points
    Hey everyone, my name is Eric and I recorded the audio in that video. If anyone has any questions regarding the recording feel free to ask and I would love to discuss. I can see how the recording could sound like distant gunshots, especially when listened to on phone speakers. However, these sounds were coming from the creek less than 50 feet from the tent. The origin is still a mystery to me.
  29. 2 points
    Even though the Steering Committee is excluded from the contest, I will share one of our findings from our past outing. Hopefully, it will encourage others to share as well. From the Chattahoochee National Forest. We have previously found large 4 toed prints in this area, as well as other enigmatic traces. This is the same area where we found the tree structure and the turtle shells which I discussed in other threads. We have observed strange balls of orange light in this area... larger, brighter, more mobile, and more continuous than the fireflies which are found in here. This past outing we actually found and heard what could be described as stereotypical 'Bigfoot' signs of sounds. This was found shortly after a passing storm, with further nasty weather inbound. It looked like something had crossed the trail and then heading up a sharp incline. The soil was disturbed going up that incline, but no further clear tracks were found. With my pack on, I weigh about 260 or 270. Jumping up and down next to this print I could leave a faint depression of my boots, but could not make an imprint anywhere near as deep in the wet but still firm soil. The final photo was put through a filter to try and give a bit more detail. Unfortunately the filter cut off the top of the print. Obviously, by not seeing what made the print we can't say for sure what it is...
  30. 2 points
    Date & Time - Monday, July 6, 2920 from 730-830pm Location - the sighting location, Oregon Cascades Weather - fine misty not-really rain, 50 degrees What Happened - NorthWind and I returned to the site of the FLIR sighting of the night before. Wr traipsed out into the woods and found, to the best of our ability, where the two bigfoots were hiding in the trees. NW stuck a branch of leaves on the tree, at 7 foot 3 inches high, to do comparison photos and try to determine the dimensions of what we saw. The terrain was very difficult to walk through - branches, old rotting logs, forest duff, and 3-4 foot tall bushes, and ofcourse, blackberry brambles. I think we can say that what we saw on the FLIR was taller than 7'3", but NorthWind has all the data, since I found them but he filmed them. I did a follow up comparison video that i will post tonight after work! In the meantime, here's some comparison photos. We got lucky with three very distinctive trees and I knew jyst where wr parked (it's a distinctive feature), so it wasn't difficult to line it all up. This is so exciting! We might have found one 10 inch footprint, looked pretty clear, but the ground was bad for prints and there was only one. However, it was in the right spot! We slso found a path out of the woods to the road, with the wrt grass pressed down. There were no prints that we could see.
  31. 2 points
    It is my opinion that Sykes has already made two major breakthroughs with the efforts he recorded in The Nature of the Beast. First, in his peer reviewed paper, he has established a population of unique bears in the Himalayas, and as an Alaskan, that alone is of extreme interest. He even outlined the dna traces of Ursus maritimus in the brown bears of the ABC Islands in southeast Alaska. Secondly, he has established mystery markers from Zanas progeny that can be used later to compare to other samples of promise. Rather than disappointment, I have been pleased with my purchase and consumption of The Nature of the Beast, especially since I no longer have to read opinions on his words. I get them verbatim.
  32. 1 point
    New road built down by the family cabin. I found the naming of it entertaining...
  33. 1 point
    And here I am, unable to see invisible bigfoot. I feel soooo inadequate.
  34. 1 point
  35. 1 point
    We are responsible for the preliminary vote. No way to do that and to keep any semblance of fairness or impartiality. Anyway, hopefully we will see some submissions that blow the few things that I have away.
  36. 1 point
    This should be open to steering committee members. Not sure how to make it work but you should not be punished for serving.
  37. 1 point
    75 yards? That thing was big and pumping out heat. For you to have captured the definition that you did at 75 yards with a TK...that sucker was big.
  38. 1 point
    My solution was to post my salty language audio in the Tar Pit. Sometimes very bad words come out when rocks are being thrown at you.
  39. 1 point
    There were many "salty" words, lol, that'll take a long time to edit! 😂 Yeah, I couldn't see anything with the night vision.
  40. 1 point
    @BlackRockBigfoot I think we guessed 50 - 75 yards? Ask NorthWind? Maybe 10 truck lengths?
  41. 1 point
    There's a lot of fake documentation on the internet obviously. Bigfoot, UFOs, paranormal, are subjects that hoaxers deal with because it is easy to fool people. Whatever you read and using as a source of truth is a hoax. It probably links Carter because he is an easy hoax target since he admitted to seeing UFOs at least once. The second part of your argument with invisibility is far fetched but would be a good experiment. No one is going to invest in equipment based on a whim. If you make a big claim like an invisible Bigfoot then you need to provide a repeatable experiment. If you have audio clips, that's a good start.
  42. 1 point
    Believe it or not, but if there was a written record on the internet of the U.S. Government stating that something that the U.S. Army declared as top secret, was in fact real and was in fact paranormal, then the CIA people that patrol the beat would promptly erase it. Obviously, they would erase the same if the U.S. Government stated that the Bigfoot are 24/7 F&B. So I could put the exact same demand back to you to provide a reference as proof that the U.S. Government stated that the Bigfoot are real and are in fact 24/7 F&B. You can't. As far as your little semantic game with quotes, prove that I am wrong. Provide a reference please. On a level playing field, you can't get away with making demands that you yourself can't also fulfill. Regardless of whether Carter clarified the truth or not, the Bigfoot can be proven as invisible when one gets the cahones to go call blasting by themselves in a non-confrontational fashion, and the Bigfoot walk right up to you while invisible. Which has happened to me on many occasions, day and night. I once spent several hours talking to an invisible Bigfoot during broad daylight, that had previously driven a salal picker running for his life from a nearby location. As long as you are a newbie and work in groups of similar minded enthusiasts, then you get to boast that you have never seen an invisible Bigfoot, because you haven't. The use of super high sensitivity microphones can also be used to listen to Bigfoot as they sneak in during broad daylight, to investigate you as you setup camp during the day. Because you will be able to see that there is nothing there. I have mentioned this several dozen times on the internet where hundreds of 24/7 F&B believers read it, and I will bet that not a one actually bought the equipment to test it out. Why? Because in the final analysis, they did not want to find proof that the Bigfoot are often if not normally, completely invisible.
  43. 1 point
    Enclosing his statement in quotations indicates those are the precise spoken words. If you're going from 40 year old memory, why would you make it a quotation? Especially since you're evidently unable to link an actual proof of the event occurring. Listen, Carter once mentioned UFOs. One can find that event and actual quotations galore. You're claiming a bigfoot reference, with date and location, yet are unable to provide a link to the actual statement by the POTUS. Color me doubtful. Trying to give you the benefit of a doubt, but you're not very conducive to that. Just saying. Provide some proof to back your quoted statements, please. Otherwise, well yeah, cool story, bruh. Edit: I know you're new here, on BFF. Glad to have you. Yet you must understand we don't take unverified statements too seriously. I'm truly not trying to badger you, but your relying upon a 40 year old recollection doesn't cut it, either. As in the immortal words of Abe Lincoln, "You can't believe everything you see on the internet."
  44. 1 point
  45. 1 point
    I came across this on Youtube today: The quality appears to be quite a bit better than the PGF versions that we normally see on YT. Apparently these came directly from John Green's copies. I also recognize some of Patterson's earlier filming efforts from British Columbia. I'm looking forward to seeing the complete footage which hopefully will be released shortly The Sasquatch Archives This is a teaser of what's to come on the channel. Make sure to have your YouTube viewing settings quality at 1080p --- pristine PGF footage - perhaps the clearest, unaltered footage ever seen on YouTube! --- various old audio interviews of eyewitness. There are at least 25 to convert. --- the best version of the Blue Creek Mountain film footage to ever grace YouTube. This should help to put a damper on the ridiculous "Massacre Theory". --- never before seen film footage of John Green's showing Native ceremonial masks and totems. --- old conference footage. I am just waiting for permission from all. There are at least five to transfer. It all takes time but it'll be worth it in the end
  46. 1 point
    What a sweet pooch! It underscores how important it is to enjoy them every single moment they're in your life. May he live on for a long time Hiflier.
  47. 1 point
    With a few years hindsight, I'm not seeing gold digging as Ketchum's goal in bigfootery. If anyone is to blame it is Erickson. It was his money. He should have hired correctly and run his operation as well as he has his businesses that made millions. In fairness to him, I have seen and read all the interviews he has given on this subject and bottom line is it was a complete learning experience from end to end. The mistakes that are so noteworthy for everyone to point out were out of ignorance. It's too bad because the Erickson Project started off really well with good saliva evidence. They just didn't have the testing pipeline to get things rolling and it cost them too much time, not enough expertise on the scientific side to help them get it right. Not sure how all of them met but the blueberry bagel lady from Michigan and Janice Carter became friends in addition to Igor Burtsev, who has spent considerable time in the field in Tennessee. The blueberry bagel lady uses many aliases. She ended up being the PR person for the Erickson project (with no scientific background).
  48. 1 point
  49. 1 point
    Here's the link to my video of yesterday's hike.
  50. 1 point
    Everyone should read this in full and just move on. There are two parts.
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